Publication to the Topic

"The use of Computers in (medical) Education"

Christof Daetwyler MD
Division for Instructional Media AUM - IAWF of the Medical Faculty of the University of Berne, Inselspital 38, CH-3010 Bern
We are finishing a publication about Computers in (medical) education that will be part of the series "Zeitschrift für Hochschuldidaktik" - the publication of the Austrian Association for Didactics in Higher Education. The language of the articles will be either English or German, the abstracts will be both in English and German. There is an online version of recent volumes with abstracts.

The textformat is ca. 8 - 16 pages A5 - follow this link to get a matrix (MS-Word document). You can use pictures of max. 168 x 113 mm.

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CAL = Computer Aided Learning



  • The editors foreword
    by Christof Daetwyler (Bern - Switzerland)
    (Download Paper "DAETWYLER_preface.doc" in german language or in english language)
    Christof Daetwyler, the editor of this publication, is medical doctor but works since more than seven years exclusively in the field of computer aided medical education at the Division for Instructional Media AUM of the Medical Faculty of the University of Berne, Switzerland. Specially the two main projects he did together with Marco Mumenthaler are quite well known: Both, "Neurology interacitve" and "Headache interactive" werde awarded with the EASA (European Academic Software Award 1998 and 2000). Since October 2000, Christof Daetwyler moderates a two day "Didactica" workshop at the Swiss Federal Highschool ETH and University of Zürich about how to create educational CD-ROMs. From September 2001 on, Christof Daetwyler will join the Group of Joe Henderson at the IML (Interactive Media Lab) of the Dartmouth-College in New Hampshire, USA.


Some thoughts about what what should be learned - and how
(Medical Students should be prepared for the "real world")

  • The role of drama and swamp in computer-based multimedial education
    by Joe Henderson (Dartmouth - USA)
    (Download Paper "HENDERSON.doc" in english language")
    Joe Henderson is the Director of the Interactive Media Laboratory in Dartmouth (USA). He writes about how to use the power of drama to bring the user into direct contact to the mediated reality.

How could computer support collaborative learning?
(Medical students are often social people - they don't want to sit by their own in front of a "death" monitor)

  • About methodologies for researching collaborative learning
    by Kim Issroff (London - UK)
    (Download Paper "ISSROFF.doc" in english lanugage)
    Kim Issroff teaches at the higher education research and development unit of the university college in London. Her special fields of interest are "artificial intelligence in education" and "methodologies for researching collaborative learning".

  • About experiences with computer-supportet cooperative work
    by Sissel Guttormsen Schär (Zurich - Switzerland) and Peter Haubner (Karlsruhe - Germany)
    (Download Paper "GUTTORMSEN_HAUBNER.doc" in english language)
    Sissel Guttormsen Schär (Leader of the Man-Machine-Interaktion Group at the Institute for Hygienics at the ETH Zurich) and Peter Haubner (Member of the Institute for Applied Computer Science and Formal Description Methods at the TU Karlsruhe) are making together a Projekt Workshop about "Telekooperation for Design and Development in virtual Projektgroups".

  • About experiences with a pilot project that supports collaborative learning
    by Peter Langkafel (Berlin - Germany)
    (Download "LANGKAFEL.doc" in german language)
    Peter Langkafel developed and evaluated IMIPPP (International Medical Internet Project of Problem-based Pain Management) to teach the medical characteristics and problems of pain. 20 international students are working self-reliantly as well as in groups on practical cases.

Formative and summative evaluation with the WWW?
(The curriculum is triggered by the exams - so we have to change exams in order to change the curriculum)

  • About experiences with computer-aided personalized learning and exams in histology
    by Robert Ogilvie (Charleston - USA)
    (Download Paper "OGILVIE_et_al.doc" in english language)
    Robert Ogilvies main field of interest are the computer-aided non-linear access and learning of cell, tissue and organ microscopic architecture. At the University of Charleston he implemented in 1996 a web-based examination tool with direct feedback. So his writing reflects years of experience which makes it very valuable to me.

What is the future of CAL?
(I have a dream...)

  • The impact of haptic I/O-devices to the future of CAL in medicine
    by Victor Spitzer (UCHSC Denver - USA)
    (Download Paper "SPITZER.doc" in english lanugage)
    Victor Spitzer is the real father of the "Virtual Human Project" of the National Library of Medicine. At his lab, they did not only cut the cadaver into thin slices and made slides - they also made a voxalisation and gave each voxel different qualities. Now they're working on stereographic virtual surgery with haptic I/O devices on this voxelset.

  • How the "virtual campus" will change future education
    by Jaques Monnard (Fribourg - Switzerland)
    (Download Paper "Monnard.doc" in english language)
    Jaques Monnard is a pioneer in web-based education. He's maintaining the EduteCH sites - and he's an important promoter for the Swiss Virtual Campus. He also participated in several projects in the field of educational technology at the Centre for New Technology in Education at the University of Fribourg.



The editor's foreword and his paper

Authors of excellent CAL explain their opinions about how CAL should be designed.

  • EchoExplorer: Enabling systems in medical education
    by Gernoth Grunst (GMD - St. Augustin - Germany)
    (Download Paper "GRUNST.doc" in english language")
    Gernoth Grunst develops multimedia-aided medical education tools at the GMD-FIT (German Research Center for Information Technologies). He's one of the founders of EnTec, a firm that specialise on the creation and marketing of tools of this kind. A good example is the "EchoExplorer", a computer-aided multimedia tool that intend to enable the student to perform an ECG on real patient after having trained it with this tool.

  • AgentSheets: Engaging Learners through Simulation-Based Design
    by Alexander Repenning and Andri Ioannidou (Boulder CO - USA)
    (Download Paper "REPENNING_IOANNIDOU.doc" in english language)
    Alexander Repenning is the CEO and director of AgentSheets Inc. in Boulder, Colorado (USA). He created "AgentSheets", a very sophisticated and easy-to-use authoring tool that allows the creation of interactive simulations. "AgentSheets" won several awards including the 1996 Gold Medal for the Most Creative Educational Application of the World Wide Web. AgentSheets Inc. is an organization supported by the National Science Foundation and collaborating with the Center of LifeLong Learning & Design at the University of Colorado.
    Andri Ioannidou is the Senior Project Manager for AgentSheets Inc. in Boulder, Colorado (USA) and a doctoral student at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Her research interests include educational uses of (simulation) technology, end-user programming, and reusable simulation components.

  • The Gallery of Heart Surgery: One tool serves different needs
    by Reinhard Friedl (Ulm - Germany)
    (Download Paper "FRIEDL_et_al.doc" in english language)
    Reinhard Friedl is Co-Developer of the "Galerie Herzchirurgie", a netwerk-capable, database-based and multimedial inforamtionsystem with educational and consulting components in the field of the surgery of the heart. The same multimedial datas are used but presented in a different manner for the target groups (patients, teachers, students and others).

  • Histology Explorer: User Centered Design of medical learning software
    by Jens Dørup (Aarhus - Denmark)
    (Download Paper "DORUP.doc" in english language)
    Jens Dorup was Professor for Anatomy and teached Histology for years. For his teaching-purposes - and the students learning-purposes - he created the "Histology-Explorer", a tutoriated "virtual microscope" with an excellent quiz-section (students wants to be quizzed). The histology explorer is available in English, Danish, Spain and German language. Jens Dørup felt really in love with new technologies for teaching and learning - so he left Anatomy and changed to the Section for Health Informatics to make his "hobby" become his official main occupation.

  • InterSIM: Intelligent guidance in an interacitve learning system
    by Dino Carl Novak (St. Augustin - Germany)
    (Download "NOVAK.doc" in german language)
    Dino Carl Novak was member of the "VoxelMan" - group and is todate member of a group at the GMD-FIT (German Research Center for Information Technologies) where they try to implement an intelligent guidance for a learning system called "InterSIM". "InterSIM" is intendet to be also an easy to use authoring shell. Actually, the group is implementing "The Ear" - a prototype to show the abilities of the system for authors and students.

  • CASUS: an authoring and learning-tool that illustrates diagnostic-reasoning processes
    by Martin Fischer (Munich - Germany)
    (Download Paper "FISCHER.doc" in english lanugage)
    Martin Fischer is one of the initiators of the "CASUS" authoring and learning system. The aim of "CASUS" is to easily implement case-based education for clinical medicine. This is done by a very sophisticated authoring-system which allows even an inexperienced user to put texts and multimedial data in a structurated way together to a learning program. The system enables the author to illustrate his diagnostic reasoning strategy in a sophisticated way - and make it available to the student as a reference.

About the "status quo" of CAL in (medical) education?
(About why it is not used as well by the students...)

  • An evaluation of the acceptance of CAL in Bern (Switzerland)
    by Peter Frey (Berne - Switzerland)
    (Download Paper "FREY.doc" in german language)
    Peter Frey runs the Division for Instructional Media of the Institute for Medical Education in Berne. He evaluated the use of CBT at the medical faculty of Berne. He writes about how the evaluation was done, about the results - and about the consequences.

  • About the acceptance of CAL in Giessen (Germany)
    by Richard Wagner (Giessen - Germany)
    Richard Wagner runs the Division for Medical Education at the University of Giessen.

  • About the acceptance of CAL in Vienna (Austria)
    by Richard März (Vienna - Austria)
    (Download Paper "MARZ_et_al.doc" in english language)
    Richard März iniciated this publication. He writes about experiences with web-based education at the University of Vienna.

  • Why we had to get rid of Computer-based Tutorials as part of the syllabus in our Learning Center (Germany)
    by Florian Eitel (Munich - Germany)
    (Download Paper "EITEL_et_al.doc" in english language)
    Florian Eitel is a pioneer in computer assisted medical education. He is Chairman in the German and the European Society for Medical Education. He writes about why he took all the MultiMedia-Stuff out of his learning center - and why the remaining part of computer-assisted learning are some web-based matierial that are integrated into the curriculum.

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Name and
Link to related site



Blackmore, David

Ottawa - Canada

Bonvin, Raphael

Basel - Switzerland

Daetwyler, Christof

Bern - Switzerland

Dørup, Jens

Aarhus - Denmark

Eitel, Florian

Munich - Germany

Frey, Peter

Bern - Switzerland

Fischer, Martin

Munich - Germany

Friedl, Reinhard

Ulm - Germany

Grunst, Gernoth

St. Augustin - Germany

Guttormsen Schär, Sissel

Zurich - Switzerland

Haubner, Peter

Karlsruhe - Germany

Henderson, Joe

Dartmouth - USA

Ionnidou, Andri

Boulder CO - USA

Issroff, Kim

London - UK

Langkafel, Peter

Berlin - Germany

Maerz, Richard

Vienna - Austria

Monnard, Jacques

Fribourg - Switzerland

Mumenthaler, Marco

Zurich - Switzerland

Novak, Dino Carl

St. Augustin - Germany

Ogilvie, Robert

Charleston - USA

Repenning, Alexander

Boulder - USA

Schulmeister, Rolf

Hamburg - Germany

Spitzer, Victor

Denver - USA

Wagner, Richard

Giessen - Germany

Woermann, Ulrich

Berne - Switzerland

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This page has been created by Christof Daetwyler the 24 Nov 1999 - last modified 11. Dez. 2000